At first glance, it is difficult to comprehend why East Timor is free and West Papua continues to be held by Indonesia. The human rights offenses these peoples have suffered include what appear to be acts of genocide (including hundreds of thousands of targeted deaths by the Indonesian military, and transmigration policies that have seen immigrants from other parts of Indonesia begin to outnumber the native populations). For years, their rights to self-determination were in effect ignored by the United Nations and overridden by Indonesia as will be described later. Appearances aside, there do exist factors that help to explain why East Timor is now recognized by the world and its former aggressor, Indonesia, as an independent nation, while for West Papua freedom is still elusive: Internal, domestic, and international factors all account for the political climate surrounding these movements.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The transmigration program (Indonesian: Transmigrasi) was an initiative of the Indonesian government to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the country. This involved moving people permanently from the island of Java, but also to a lesser extent from Bali and Madura, to less densely populated areas including Papua, Kalimantan, Sumatra, and Sulawesi. The stated purpose of this program was to reduce the considerable poverty and overpopulation on Java, to provide opportunities for hard-working poor people, and to provide a workforce to better utilize the natural resources of the outer islands. The program, however, has been controversial with critics accusing the Indonesian government of trying to use these migrants to reduce the proportion of native populations in receiving areas, thus weakening separatist movements.